The aim of this study was to investigate the role of emotional intelligence (EQ) to develop the knowledge, skills, attitude, and values of leaders in their working environment. Research affirms that EQ is equally important as the cognitive abilities (IQ) and technical skills for leaders to demonstrate. This study investigated whether leaders who had a high level of EQ would be imbued with collegial skills. On the flip side, another objective of this study was to determine the notion of tobephobic leadership and how this affected the job satisfaction of employees. Four hundred and seventy-four respondents participated in this quantitative study. They were required to complete a structured questionnaire that examined their leaders’ intrapersonal and interpersonal emotionally intelligent behaviours (EIBs). What emanates from this exploratory study is that leaders who lacked EIBs adopted a tobephobic approach, consequently creating anxiety and stress in the workplace. In contrast, exemplary collegial leaders who effectively used both IQ and EQ inspired the best from their workers and sustained high performance individuals, teams, and organizations. This research strongly suggests that the complexities of organizations require a new focus on collegial leadership, as opposed to tobephobic leadership, that extends far beyond possessing IQ alone. Furthermore, this study reveals that EQ is not in opposition to IQ, but it is an extension of the leaders’ potential to succeed. Of necessity, traditional cognitive intelligence (IQ) must be combined with non-cognitive intelligence (EQ) to help leaders perform at their best and inspire their employees to be successful and happy.
In the light of today’s rapidly changing, globalized economy and the pressure it puts on organizations to recruit and retain human capital, employee satisfaction has become a prerequisite for organizational success. An organization’s benefit system can play an essential role in this aspect. Taking into consideration that paid parental leaves are being offered by the majority of countries worldwide, while the United States is the only industrialized nation that does not offer paid parental leave to working parents, this study compared the influence of paid parental leave (PPL) on employee benefit satisfaction and its effects on job satisfaction and turnover intentions in the United States and Germany. It presents research undertaken on two sample groups of 108 part-time and full-time employees of childbearing age (n = 54 United States, n = 54 Germany). The central finding of this study is that employees with access to PPL have significantly higher levels of benefit and job satisfaction. While results showed no significant difference between German and American participants in benefit satisfaction, job satisfaction and turnover intentions, they revealed that employees with high levels of benefit satisfaction scored significantly higher on the job satisfaction scale and showed significantly lower turnover intentions. Results from a mediation analysis using the PROCESS Macro for SPSS, indicated that benefit satisfaction mediates the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Practical implications of this study apply to HR practices regarding organizational benefit systems and family friendly policies. By providing PPL to the changing workforce, organizations can increase their employees’ benefit satisfaction, which in turn can help to improve job satisfaction and reduce turnover rates. Therefore, PPL presents itself not only as an effective way for companies to promote the commitment and loyalty of their employees but also as a strategic business advantage in the competition for human capital.
Our study on a sample of Estonian creative knowledge employees indicates considerable disparities between their actual, contractually agreed, and desired amounts of working time. Nearly two thirds of the employees studied exhibited a mismatch between their desired and contractual working schedules, reflecting the constraints that employment contracts set on preferred working time. Our study results reveal that even if the employees had access to flexible working time options, a majority of them still followed roughly the standard nine-to-five working schedule even though their desired timing of work may have been different. This may be driven by various social norms and family commitments that warrant further study. The actual duration of the working day is longer than contractually agreed for 90 percent of the employees studied, which may pose health risks to employees. Our ordinary least squares (OLS) regression estimates show that the more educated the employee is, the less overtime work they did, while the higher their salary level, the more hours of overtime the employee did. The OLS regression estimates for the time difference between the actual start and the contractual start of the working day show that women tended to start their working day later and men earlier than officially required. Interestingly, the larger the family the employee had, the more the actual start time of work shifted to being earlier than contractually required. The older the employee, the later the start of their working day was from the official schedule. Our study highlights potentially large inefficiencies in industrial relations and in the use of the potential of employees in creative knowledge work that may have considerable adverse effects on the financial results of companies and on socio-economic development in general.